“As Low as Reasonably Practicable” (ALARP) is a commonly applied, judgement-based, principle to assess whether risk controls/barriers are sufficient. It recognises the concept of proportionality between costs and efforts expended, and risk reduction benefit. “As Low as (is) Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA) is based on similar principles to ensure the residual risk will be as low as reasonably practicable.

The principle recognises that it is generally not possible to eliminate risk entirely, but it aims to demonstrate that the risk of an activity has been reduced to a level acceptable to stakeholders. To reduce a risk to a level “as low as reasonably practicable” represents the point where the time, trouble, difficulty and cost of further reduction measures become unreasonably disproportionate to the additional risk reduction obtained. The UK HSE has produced extensive guidance on ALARP, including “Principles and guidelines ro assist HSE in its judgements that duty-holders have reduced risk as low as reasonably practicable” http:/ / In the United States of America, ALARA is almost exclusively used in the field of radiation protection and is defined in Tide 10, Section 20.1003 of the Code ofFederal Regulations (10 CFR20.1003).

Source: IOGP Report No. 510, Operating Management System Framework for controlling risk and delivering high performance in the oil and gas industry, International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, June 2014. Global Standards


As low as reasonably achievable.

Source: NOGEPA Industrial Guideline No. 16, Working with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), Netherlands, Version 1, January 2009. Global Standards

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