Buckling of the tensile-armour wires, usually caused by extreme axial compression, which results in significant radial deformation.

Source: API RP 17B, Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe, Fourth Edition, July 2008. Global Standards



Phenomenon whereby armour wires locally rearrange with an increase and/or decrease in pitch-circle diameter as a result of accumulated axial and radial stresses in the armour layer(s).

Source: API SPEC 17E, Specification for Subsea Umbilicals, Upstream Segment, Fourth Edition, October 2010. Global Standards


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