Includes tangible items such as money and equipment as well as the operational costs associated with the implementation of countermeasures. There are also intangible costs such as lost productivity, morale considerations, political embarrassment, and a variety of others. Costs may be borne by the individuals who are affected, the corporations they work for, or they may involve macroeconomic costs to society.

Source:API STANDARD 780, Security Risk Assessment Methodology for the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries, First Edition, May 2013. Global Standards



Value of impact to an organization or person that can be measured.

Source: ANSI/ISA–99.00.01–2007, Security for Industrial Automation and Control Systems, Part 1: Terminology, Concepts, and Models, 29 October 2007. National Standard

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