Direction of movement away from the reservoir.

Source: API SPEC 17D, Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems—Subsea Wellhead and Tree Equipment, Upstream Segment, Second Edition May 2011 (Errata September 2011). Global Standards



Away from a component in the direction of flow.

Source: API SPEC 17F, Specification for Subsea Production Control Systems, Second Edition, December 2006 (Reaffirmed April 2011). Global Standards


Business process most commonly used in the petroleum industry to describe postproduction processes (e.g. refining, transportation and marketing of petroleum products).

Source: API STD 689, Collection and Exchange of Reliability and Maintenance Data for Equipment, First Edition, July 2007. Global Standards



Business process, most commonly in the petroleum industry, associated with post-production activities. EXAMPLES Refining, transportation and marketing of petroleum products.

Source: ISO 20815:2008, Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries – Production assurance and reliability management. Global Standards


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