Ecosystem Services

The benefits (direct and indirect) that people derive from ecosystems.

Ecosystem services comprise:

  • natural products (provisioning services) such as water, fish and timber;
  • natural functions (regulating services), such as flood control, waste assimilation and climate regulation; and
  • other social benefits (cultural services) such as recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits.

These services are also supported by underpinning natural processes (supporting services) such as nutrient cycling and photosynthesis.

Source: Identifying and assessing water sources: Guidance document for the onshore oil and gas industry, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), 2014. Global Standards

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