The process of transforming plaintext into ciphertext.

Extended Definition: Converting data into a form that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people.

Adapted from: CNSSI 4009, ICAM SAML 2.0 WB SSO Profile 1.0.2

Source: NICCS™ Portal Cybersecurity Lexicon, National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies ( as of 11 November 2015, Global Standards



Cryptographic transformation of plaintext into ciphertext that conceals the data’s original meaning to prevent it from being known or used (See “decryption”) [11].

  • NOTE: If the transformation is reversible, the corresponding reversal process is called “decryption,” which is a transformation that restores encrypted data to its original state.

Source: ANSI/ISA–99.00.01–2007, Security for Industrial Automation and Control Systems, Part 1: Terminology, Concepts, and Models, 29 October 2007. National Standard

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