Includes global load effects like axial loads, bending moment, torque, and shear.
Source: API Technical Report 17TR7, Verification and Validation of Subsea Connectors, First Edition, April 2017. Global Standards
There are two types of primary external load, other than environmental load, to which a subsea tree and its upper and lower connectors can be subjected. The first type is installation, which includes riser loads and flowline connection loads. The second type of external load occurs during workover and, depending on the type of tree, can be due to attachment of a C/WO riser system or marine drilling riser system.
Source: API RP 17A, Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems—General Requirements and Recommendations, Fourth Edition, Reaffirmed 2011. Global Standards