Buckling mode implying deformations of the cross-section.
NOTE This can e.g. be due to external pressure (hoop buckling) or moment (wrinkling) or a combination thereof.
Source: API Standard 2RD, Dynamic Risers for Floating Production Systems, Second Edition, September 2013. Global Standards
Source: API RP 17G, Recommended Practice for Completion/Workover Risers, Second Edition, July 2006 (Reaffirmed April 2011). Global Standards