Mud Volcanoes

Diapiric intrusion of plastic clay causing high pressure gas-water seepages which carry mud, fragments of rock (and occasionally oil) to the surface.

NOTE The surface expression of a mud volcano is a cone of mud with continuous or intermittent gas escaping through the mud.

Source:API RP 2EQ, Seismic Design Procedures and Criteria for Offshore Structures, First Edition, November 2014. Global Standards

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