Load induced by structural deformation (or the prevention thereof) in the riser which is necessary to satisfy the laws of compatibility of strain and deformation. NOTE The internal forces induced by a secondary load diminish when yielding occurs. Secondary loads do not have to be taken into account where they do not affect the resistance of the member/component to resist other loads. Preload of bolts in flanges is an example. During make-up of a flange, the torque/tension applied by the tool on the bolts is primary, but after make-up, the residual bolt preload is secondary. EXAMPLE An example of a secondary load is the bending caused in the C/WO riser during operation within the drilling riser due to flex joint/ball joint angles. Bending moments that exceed yield, in this case, do not generally cause excessive yielding and failure. Other examples are differential temperature in restrained sections and residual stresses after welding.
Source: API RP 17G, Recommended Practice for Completion/Workover Risers, Second Edition, July 2006 (Reaffirmed April 2011). Global Standards